Internet Process Manual - Frequently Asked Questions

Bulk solids

Crystallization

Drying

Gas cleaning

Mini-manuals

Solvent extraction

Slurry handling

Solid-liquid separation

Waste water treatment


Content release 21


Bulk solids

4 Gravity Transfer

2 Gravity Transfer in Chutes : Design Guide [New]

8 General

2 Effects of vibration on handling properties of wet and dry solids [New]


Crystallization

7 Measurement techniques

3 Polymorphism and non-crystalline phases [New]

RR Research reports

2 A comparative study of the cooling crystallization of potassium sulphate by indirect and direct contact heat transfer [New]

4 The dependence of heat exchanger fouling on solution undercooling [New]

21 Determination of crystallization kinetics from batch crystallization experiments [New]

23 Further studies of encrustation in inorganic fluid systems [New]

24 Surface encrustation in cooled melt systems [New]

31 Scale-up of crystal nucleation rate [New]

33 Development of a supersaturation monitor [New]

42 Industrial plant data from batch crystallizers [New]

50 Measured solids distribution in a draft tube baffled crystallizer; preliminary results [New]

51 Measured solids distributions at low solids loadings in a draft tube baffled crystallizer; final results [New]

59 Organic crystallization research programme: the crystallization of dodecanedioic acid from solution in methanol [New]

68 A brief examination of the effect of ultrasound on the crystallization of dodecanedioic acid from solution in methanol [New]

91 Liquid-phase-only measured flow patterns and mixing rates in a draft tube baffled crystallizer [New]

95 Organic crystallization research programme: the crystallization of dodecanedioic acid from methyl ethyl ketone [New]

99 An assessment of techniques for measuring solid-phase concentrations in the crystallizer hydrodynamics rig [New]

101 Continuous crystallization of pentaerythritol Report 1. Steady state operation. Experimental results [New]

106 Organic crystallization research programme: the crystallization of diaminododecane from acetic acetonitrile [New]

108 Continuous crystallization of pentaerythritol Report 2. Steady state operation. Comparison of CRYCON predictions with experimental data [New]

109 Comparison between measured and CFX predicted hydrodynamics data [New]

110 Organic Crystallization Research Programme: The Crystallization of Naphthalene from Toluene [New]

111 Organic Crystallization Research Programme: Results summary for low solubility systems [New]

115 Continuous crystallization of pentaerythritol Report 3. Start-up transients and operation with fines destruction. Comparison of CRYCON predictions with experimental data [New]


Drying

7 Layer and contact drying

4 Design guide [Updated]

RR Research reports

5 Atomisation of spray dryer feedstocks. 1: Measurement of mean drop size on full-scale plant and a comparison with the literature correlations [New]

6 The use of batch kinetic data for the simulation of a continuous, well-mixed fluidised bed dryer [New]

7 Further studies on the design of a continuous, well-mixed fluidised dryer from batch kinetic data [New]

11 Particle motion in vertical pneumatic conveying dryers [New]

17 Spray dryer design programs (SPRY1 and SPRY2) [New]

18 SPS drying kinetics rig [New]

19 The design of flights in cascading rotary dryers [New]

25 Residence times of two and three component mixtures in cascading rotary dryers [New]

26 Solids mixing in spouted beds. Part 1 - Residence time distributions of mixtures [New]

27 Solids mixing in spouted beds. Part 2 - Mechanisms of particle mixing and segregation [New]

28 The prediction of particle residence times in cascading rotary dryers [New]

29 Testing of the Lang model (SPRY2 computer code) for preliminary sizing of spray dryer chambers [New]

32 Pilot scale spray dryer aerodynamic measurements and comparison with predictions of the CFX code [New]

35 The SPS equilibrium moisture content rig [New]

36 Modelling the acceleration zone of vertical pneumatic conveying dryers [New]

37 Feeding pneumatic conveying dryers [New]

39 Spray dryer experiments 1983-85 and testing of the SPRY1 computer code [New]

43 The effect of inlet air humidity on the design of plug-flow fluidised bed dryers [New]

45 Modelling of heat transfer in vertical pneumatic conveying dryers [New]

48 Short-cut methods for design and simulation of dryers [New]

49 Air-solids drag in cascading rotary dryers [New]

52 The effect of inlet air humidity on the design of well-mixed fluidised bed dryers [New]

53 Drying in fluidised beds fitted with immersed heating coils [New]

54 Drying rates in vertical pneumatic conveying dryers [New]

55 Developments in simulation of single-stage and multi-stage fluidised bed dryers [New]

56 A model for the spreading of particle curtains and the air flow distribution in cascading rotary dryers [New]

60 Dense phase hold-up and residence times in cascading rotary dryers [New]

61 Adiabatic flow of air in a spray dryer [New]

62 The effect of an evaporating spray on the flow of air in a spray dryer [New]

63 Spray dryer experiments 1986-88 and testing of the SPRY1 computer code [New]

64 Axial particles movement and heat and mass transfer in cascading rotary dryers [New]

65 Slurry drying in spouted beds [New]

66 Hydrodynamics of wet spouted beds [New]

67 The determination of the drying kinetics of particles from thin-layer drying experiments [New]

69 Further studies on aerodynamics of spray dryers using the body-fitted CFX code [New]

70 Discrete droplet model in CFX code for modelling spray dryers [New]

89 Air pumping by rotary atomisers in spray dryers [New]

90 Further studies of thin-layer methods to measure drying kinetics [New]

98 Modelling of agglomeration effects in vertical pneumatic conveying dryers [New]


Gas cleaning

1 Introduction

4 Electrostatic precipitators [New]

4 Fabric filters

6 New filter media [New]

RR Research reports

9 An experimental review of the LADAL wide angle scanning photosedimentometer [New]

14 Calibration and evaluation of the Joyce Loebl centrifuge [New]

40 The effect of pressure drop on Venturi scrubber efficiency [New]

41 Fundamental studies of Venturi scrubber operation [New]

73 The effects of solid loading on cyclone performance [New]

79 A hydrodynamic model for Venturi scrubbers [New]

80 Modelling media movement during pulse cleaning of fabric filters [New]

81 The performance of Venturis in pulse cleaned fabric filters [New]

82 A mathematical model for the reverse flow cleaning of filters [New]

84 The collection efficiency of knitted mesh demisters [New]

85 The influence of dust and gas properties on cake adhesion [New]

107 Cleanable Cartridge Filters [New]

112 Modelling of wave plate demisters [New]

117 A model for the gas flow in pulse tubes [New]


Mini-manuals

6 Granulation [New]


Solvent extraction

9 Recommended procedures

6 Mixer batch kinetics [New]

9 Diffusivity measurement [New]

13 Using the AKUFVE apparatus [New]

RR Research reports

12 Comparison of the performance of solvent extraction columns. (i) Water/succinic acid/n-butanol system [New]

15 Comparison of the performance of solvent extraction columns. (ii) Water/iso-butyric acid/cumene system [New]

16 Comparison of the performance of solvent extraction columns. (iii) Relative performance of packed, rotating disc and Kuhni columns [New]

22 Compatibility of polymers to extraction solvents and the effects of polymer contamination on the coalescence of dispersions [New]

46 Comparison of the performance of solvent extraction columns. (iv) The performance of a pulsed sieve plate column [New]

47 Comparison of the performance of solvent extraction columns. (v) Behaviour of randomly packed columns using the water/succinic acid/n-butanol system [New]

58 Settling and coalescence rates in deep-band gravity settlers [New]

120 On-line imaging and measurement of immiscible liquid-liquid phase distribution using electrical capacitance tomography [New]


Slurry handling

2 Pipeline Design

6 Review of pipe fitting losses [New]


Solid-liquid separation

3 Clarification filters

2 Theory [New]

6 Centrifugation [Updated]

7 Less common separation processes

2 Flotation [New]

11 Instrumentation

3 Wet cake (non-pumpable materials) [New]

12 Software reviews

1 SLS software [New]

RR Research reports

10 Assessment of the filter leaf test for predicting the performance of industrial vacuum filters [New]

13 The forced gas deliquoring of filter cakes formed by pressure filtration [New]

30 Cake washing on vacuum filters [New]

34 Leaf and pilot scale testing of vacuum filters [New]

38 Influence of particle and cake properties on cake washing on vacuum filters [New]

44 Agglomeration of particles in a magnetic field [New]

57 Filter cake dewatering by gas blowing [New]

71 Compression dewatering of filter cakes [New]

72 Effects of variables on efficiency of displacement washing of filter cakes [New]

74 Further studies on the washing of filter cakes [New]

76 Compression in filter presses [New]

77 Modelling the clarification of dilute suspensions by computational fluid dynamics [New]

96 A study of filtering centrifuges [New]

97 Evaporation effects in gas blowing [New]

116 Dewatering in filtering centrifuges [New]


Waste water treatment

A Management Issues

1 Environmental Legislation [Updated]


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